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TED十佳演講之神奇奧秘 奧利弗·薩克斯:幻覺背后的心智(7)

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Around 1970, it was found that there were not only parts of the brain, but particular cells.
1970年左右,人們發現特化的不是一塊區域,而是相應的腦細胞。
"Face cells" were discovered around 1970. And now we know that there are hundreds of other sorts of cells, which can be very, very specific.
“臉細胞”是1970年左右發現的,至今,我們已經發現了數百種與各類視覺元素對應的腦細胞,這種對應關系可以非常瑣細、明確。
So you may not only have "car" cells, you may have "Aston Martin" cells.
比如說 “車”細胞可能還有“阿斯頓·馬丁(一種車)”細胞。
I saw an Aston Martin this morning. I had to bring it in. And now it's in there somewhere.
今早我看到一輛阿斯頓·馬丁,我一直想提提它,現在我的腦子里就有這種“阿斯頓·馬丁”細胞 。
Now, at this level, in what's called the inferotemporal cortex, there are only visual images, or figments or fragments.
那么,這一程度的幻覺,只會由這一整塊可以稱作下顳葉皮質的區域形成視覺影像、幻象,或片段。
It's only at higher levels that the other senses join in and there are connections with memory and emotion.
只有更高程度的幻覺才會有視覺以外的感官參與,同時牽涉到記憶與情感。
And in the Charles Bonnet syndrome, you don't go to those higher levels.
在邦納癥候群中,更高程度的幻覺并不會出現。
You're in these levels of inferior visual cortex where you have thousands and tens of thousands and millions of images,
牽涉到初級視覺皮質的幻覺有上百上千,甚至更多的圖像、幻象,
or figments, or fragmentary figments, all neurally encoded in particular cells or small clusters of cells.
或殘缺幻象,這些都被編譯在特定的腦細胞或腦細胞簇中。
Normally these are all part of the integrated stream of perception, or imagination, and one is not conscious of them.
這些細胞通常參與形成感知和想象,人們通常是無法意識到這一過程的。
It is only if one is visually impaired or blind that the process is interrupted.
只有當你的視力受損或喪失,這一過程才會被干擾。

奧利弗·薩克斯:幻覺背后的心智(7).png

And instead of getting normal perception, you're getting an anarchic, convulsive stimulation, or release, of all of these visual cells in the inferotemporal cortex.

在這種情況下,你的感知不再正常,一種不受控的、痙攣的釋放活動,發生在位于初級視覺皮質的這些視覺腦細胞中,這種活動的結果就是,
So, suddenly you see a face. Suddenly you see a car. Suddenly this, and suddenly that.
你突然看到一張臉,轉瞬看到一輛車,突然這,突然那。
The mind does its best to organize and to give some sort of coherence to this, but not terribly successfully.
大腦會嘗試控制場面,嘗試使這一切符合邏輯,但不會很成功。
When these were first described, it was thought that they could be interpreted like dreams.
這些現象最初被描述時,人們相信,跟夢一樣,這種幻覺也能被強行中止。
But in fact people say, "I don't recognize the people. I can't form any associations."
不過實際上患者表示 “我認不出來誰是誰。完全沒辦法想到任何信息?!?/div>
"Kermit means nothing to me." You don't get anywhere thinking of them as dreams.
“青蛙柯密特對我來說一點意義都沒有啊?!?把這種現象視作夢的一種是行不通的。
Well, I've more or less said what I wanted. I think I just want to recapitulate and say this is common.
唔,我應該說得差不多了,我再概括一下,其實幫納癥候群是個常見現象。
Think of the number of blind people. There must be hundreds of thousands of blind people who have these hallucinations, but are too scared to mention them.
你們想,在盲人人群中,肯定有上百上千有這樣的幻覺,然而卻不敢提起。
So this sort of thing needs to be brought into notice, for patients, for doctors, for the public.
所以不管是病人,醫生還是公眾,都有必要認識到這一現象的常見性。
Finally, I think they are infinitely interesting and valuable, for giving one some insight as to how the brain works.
最后,我發現幫助別人認識大腦作用的原理是一件無比有趣而有意義的事情。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
interrupted [intə'rʌptid]

想一想再看

adj. 中斷的;被打斷的;不規則的 vt. 打斷;中斷

 
stimulation [.stimju'leiʃən]

想一想再看

n. 刺激,激勵,鼓舞

聯想記憶
coherence [kəu'hiərəns]

想一想再看

n. 粘附(附著,結合,凝聚,相參性,同調,連貫性)

聯想記憶
inferior [in'fiəriə]

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adj. 次等的,較低的,不如的

聯想記憶
specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明確的,具有特效的
n. 特

聯想記憶
fragmentary ['frægməntəri]

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adj. 碎片的,碎塊的,碎屑狀的,零碎的,不完全的

 
organize ['ɔ:gənaiz]

想一想再看

v. 組織

 
recognize ['rekəgnaiz]

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vt. 認出,認可,承認,意識到,表示感激

 
conscious ['kɔnʃəs]

想一想再看

adj. 神志清醒的,意識到的,自覺的,有意的

聯想記憶
release [ri'li:s]

想一想再看

n. 釋放,讓渡,發行
vt. 釋放,讓與,準

聯想記憶
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