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紐約時報:環保署對空氣污染所持態度過于樂觀(1)

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EPA's Reckoning Is a Rosier View of Air Pollution

環保署評估空氣污染時,所持態度過于樂觀
By Lisa Friedman
文/麗莎·弗里德曼
WASHINGTON — The Environmental Protection Agency plans to change the way it calculates the health risks of air pollution,
華盛頓電——環保署計劃改變計算空氣污染帶來的健康風險的方式,
a shift that would make it easier to roll back a key climate change rule because it would result in far fewer predicted deaths from pollution,
這一轉變會導致污染致死的預測數據變得小得多,壓低這一關鍵的氣候變化規則也會變得更加容易,
according to five people with knowledge of the agency’s plans.
據了解環保署這批計劃的五名人士透露。
The E.P.A. had originally forecast that eliminating the Obama-era rule, the Clean Power Plan,
環保署原先就預測過,取消奧巴馬的政策,即取消“清潔能源計劃”,
and replacing it with a new measure would have resulted in an additional 1,400 premature deaths per year.
繼而代之以新的措施,過早死亡的年均數據可能還要多出1400例。
The new analytical model would significantly reduce that number
采用了新的分析模型,這一數據便會銳減,
and would most likely be used by the Trump administration to defend further rollbacks of air pollution rules if it is formally adopted.
而且,如果這一模型被正式采納,特朗普政府極有可能會用它來為進一步降低空氣污染規定辯護。
The proposed shift is the latest example of the Trump administration downgrading the estimates of environmental harm from pollution in regulations.
特朗普政府正在下調有關規定中對污染造成的環境損害的評估,這次擬議的調整可以說就是最新的例子。
In this case, the proposed methodology would assume there is little or no health benefit to making the air any cleaner than what the law requires.
這次提議的方法認為,讓空氣質量高出法律要求的水平對人們的健康幾乎沒有任何助益。
Many experts said that approach was not scientifically sound
許多專家都表示,從科學的角度來講,這種方法并不可靠,
and that, in the real world, there are no safe levels of the fine particulate pollution associated with the burning of fossil fuels.
而且,在現實中,化石燃料燃燒產生的細顆粒物污染也不存在什么安全水平。

3

Fine particulate matter — the tiny, deadly particles that can penetrate deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream —

細微顆?!布茨切┠芄簧釗敕尾坎⒔胙?,微小但致命的顆?!?/div>
is linked to heart attacks, strokes and respiratory disease.
與心臟病、中風和呼吸系統疾病等多種疾病都有關。
The five people familiar with the plan, all current or former E.P.A. officials, said the new modeling method
熟悉該計劃的那五名人士都是環保署現任或前任官員,
would appear in the agency’s analysis of the final version of the replacement regulation, known as the Affordable Clean Energy rule, which is expected to be made public in June.
他們稱,新的建模方法將出現在環保署對預計將于今年6月公布的替代法規,即“平價清潔能源規定”,最終版本的分析里。
Asked on Monday whether the new method would be included in the agency’s final analysis of the rule,
周一被問及新方法是否會被納入該機構對該規定的最終分析時,
William L. Wehrum, the E.P.A. air quality chief, said
環保局空氣質量部主管威廉·韋魯姆只說,
only that the final version would include multiple analytical approaches in an effort to be transparent.
最終版本將包括多種分析方法,力求透明。
He said the agency had made no formal change to its methodology.
他說,該機構還沒有對其評估方法作出正式改變。
“It’s a very important issue, and it’s an issue where there has been a lot of debate over what the right approach is,” Mr. Wehrum said.
“這是一個非常重要的問題,在這個問題上,究竟什么才是正確的方法出現了很多爭論,”韋魯姆說道。
The E.P.A., when making major regulatory changes,
在對規章制度進行重大改革時,
is normally expected to demonstrate that society will see more benefits than costs from the change.
人們通常都期望環保署能證明,大家能從變革中看到更多的利益而不是更多的成本。
Experts said that, while benefits would appear on paper in this case,
專家們表示,雖然書面上會出現變革的各種好處,
the change actually disregards potential dangers to public health.
但這一改變實際上是忽視了它對公共健康的潛在威脅。

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