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經濟學人:國民幸福指數(2)

來源:經濟學人 編輯:Ceciliya ?  VIP免費外教試聽課 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
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The lowest point of all came in 1975, at the end of a long decline during the Vietnam war,

最低谷出現在1975年,在越南戰爭期間,隨著西貢的陷落和美國的恥辱性失敗,
with the fall of Saigon and America's humiliating defeat.
長期衰落結束之時。
In Germany and Italy the first world war also caused dips in happiness.
一戰也導致德國和意大利幸福感的下降。
By contrast, during the second world war these countries both got happier as the war continued.
相比之下,在第二次世界大戰期間,隨著戰爭的繼續,這兩個國家都變得更加幸福。
Initially, that might be put down to their early successes,
起初,這也許可以歸結為他們早期的成功,
but this can hardly explain German happiness when the Red Army was at the gates of Berlin.
但這很難解釋當紅軍團來到柏林的時候,德國人的幸福感。
The researchers hypothesise that what is being measured here is the result of propaganda and censorship,
研究人員假設,這里所衡量的是宣傳和審查的結果,
rather than honest opinion. But they cannot prove this.
而不是誠實的意見。但他們無法證明這一點。
Earlier in Italian history, though, there was a clear and explicable crash in happiness in 1848,
但在意大利歷史早期,1848年發生了一場明顯的、可以解釋的幸福大崩潰,
with the failure of revolutions intended to unite into a single nation what were then half a dozen disparate states.
當時意圖統一六個分散的國家的革命失敗了。
Surprisingly, however, successful unification in the 1860s also saw a fall in happiness.
然而,令人驚訝的是,在19世紀60年代成功的統一也見證了幸福感的下降。

國民幸福指數(2).png

As to wealth, the steady progress of the Victorian period matched a steady increase in British happiness,

至于財富,維多利亞時期的穩步發展與英國人幸福感的穩步增長相匹配,
as did the economic boom of the 1920s, which also lifted American spirits.
20世紀20年代的經濟繁榮也提升了美國人的精氣神。
Both countries' spirits fell again in the Great Depression that followed the stockmarket crash of 1929.
在1929年股市崩盤后的大蕭條中,這兩個國家的精氣神再次下降。
After the lows of the 1970s, though, happiness in both has been on the rise ever since.
然而,在經歷了20世紀70年代的低谷之后,兩國的幸福感一直在上升。
Overall, then, Dr Sgroi and Dr Proto found that happiness does vary with GDP.
總的來說,斯格羅博士和普羅托博士發現幸福感確實與GDP有關。
But the effect of health and life expectancy,
健康和預期壽命的影響
which does not have the episodic quality of booms, busts and armed conflict, is larger,
不像繁榮、蕭條和武裝沖突那樣斷斷續續,但它們的影響更大,
even when the tendency of wealth to improve health is taken into account.
即使把財富改善健康的趨勢考慮在內。
A one-year increase in longevity, for example, has the same effect on national happiness as a 4.3% increase in GDP.
例如,壽命增加一年對國民幸福的影響和GDP增加4.3%相同。
And, as the grand historical sweep suggests, it is warfare that causes the biggest drops in happiness.
而且,正如大規模的歷史搜索所顯示的那樣,正是戰爭導致了最大程度的幸福感下降。
On average it takes a 30% increase in GDP to raise happiness by the amount that a year of war causes it to fall.
平均而言,GDP增長30%才會帶來幸福感,而一年的戰爭就可以使幸福感下降30%。
The upshot appears to be that, while increasing national income is important to happiness,
其結果似乎是,雖然增加國民收入對幸福感很重要,
it is not as important as ensuring the population is healthy and avoiding conflict.
但卻不如確保人民健康和避免沖突重要。

譯文由可可原創,僅供學習交流使用,未經許可請勿轉載。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
censorship ['sensəʃip]

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n. 檢查制度

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depression [di'preʃən]

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n. 沮喪,蕭條

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steady ['stedi]

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adj. 穩定的,穩固的,堅定的
v. 使穩固

 
campaign [kæm'pein]

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n. 運動,活動,戰役,競選運動
v. 從事運

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population [.pɔpju'leiʃən]

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n. 人口 ,(全體)居民,人數

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vary ['vɛəri]

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v. 變化,改變,使多樣化

 
overall [əuvə'rɔ:l]

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adj. 全部的,全體的,一切在內的
adv.

 
propaganda [.prɔpə'gændə,prɔpə'gændə]

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n. 宣傳,宣傳的內容

 
decline [di'klain]

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n. 衰微,跌落; 晚年
v. 降低,婉謝

 
aggressive [ə'gresiv]

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adj. 侵略的,有進取心的,好斗的

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